Hi biowiz here on the final day of blogging. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid which encodes for all the genetic material in living organisms. I was looking at a few videos on DNA and i found out some really cool stuff so i just had to share this with u. Check out these amazing fact about DNA.


1) Even those DNA codes for all of the information that makes up living organisms,
it is only maked up of four nucleotide bases. They are
adenine,thymine, guanine and cytosine.
2) We all share a 99% genetic similarity, A parent and child share 99.5%
3) If you could type 60 word per minutes on a keypad, it would take you 50 years to
type the entire human genome.
4) Humans and cabbage share about 40-50% DNA
5) If unwound and tied together, a strand of DNA in a cell would be apporoximately
6 feet long.

Published paper analysis #2

 Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Rustam Khan, Saeed Hamid, Safia Awan, and Wasim Jafri “Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Lactose Intolerance Contribute to Irritable Bowel Syndrome”.2013.Accessed 11th April 2013. 


        Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastro intestinal disorder that is twice more common in females than in males. It is the most common gastrointestinal disorder and it usually affects individuals between the ages of 30-50 year old. The characteristic symptoms of IBS include abdominal discomfort which is due to diarrhea, constipation or changes in bowel habits. 

       A hypothesis was proposed suggesting that small intestine bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) may have been the main contributor to IBS pathophysiology seeing that the characteristic of (SIBO) is unusually high amounts of bacteria in or close to the small intestine. Treating (SIBO) with antibiotics would reduce or get rid of the bacteria so this improve the symptoms of IBS. The misdiagnosis of (SIBO) as IBS is common and was later proven by reports of patients, already diagnosed with IBS also being diagnosed with celiac disease. H2BT is now a simpler and cheaper alternative in the diagnosis of SIBO. Patients with IBS was shown to be positive for lactose H2BT and in studies of 98 patients, 64 showed a positive lactulose breath test. This study was composed to determine how frequent lactose intolerance is in patients diagnosed with IBS.

      Patients were selected from gastroenterology clinic and the criteria for selecting them was based on the amount of bowel movements per day with 3 being described as loose or watery stool. The controls were those that had chrome non-specific diarrhea (CNSD) and had more than 3 (BM) per day for at least 4 weeks but less than 12 weeks. Demographic data and bowel habits were monitored and recorded along with the other tests like physical examinations, serum creatine, colonoscopy, stool microscopy, complete blood count and electrolyte. After all the testing was done the results were expressed as the mean standard deviation for continuous variables like age and numbers were expressed in categorical data.

    The (SIBO) causes abdominal pains due to the presence of an increase bacterial colony in or around the small intestine. These bacteria feed on the lactose in the stomach and produce gases as a byproduct which causes the discomfort. This is different to lactose intolerance because the patients may not be lactose intolerant but display similar symptoms. 


HI everyone Biowiz here. the finally day is here but i’m still reviewing lipids. Its not as diffucult as i thought it was….expecially the naming of fatty acids but it’s actually cool. And most of the stuff i’m learning i kinda knew already..:). Just have my last published paper to summarize and reflect and then that’s it. I’ll be free to study my other courses!…



Hey guys Biowiz here. Check out this iguana I saw while leaving school yesterday. It was so close I thought it would jump on me. It ran away the moment i was done. I guess it likes to take photos..:)

Published paper #1

Manouchehr Nakhjavani, Afsaneh Morteza, Reza Karimi, Zahra Banihashmi, Alireza Esteghamati “Diabetes induces gender gap on LCAT levels and activity”.2013.Acessed 5th April.

Diabetes is a disease in with the blood sugar level of the individual is very high and may be due to the cells in the body not responding to the insulin that is produced or the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Traditionally low plasma concentration was interpreted to be a risk factor for cardio vascular disease. Studies have shown that types 2 diabetes has lower high density lipoproteins and is seen more in non-diabetes and diabetic women rather than men.
The study involved Lecthin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) which is important in the metabolism of HDL and deals with the conversion of cholesterol to cholesteryl esters which makes mature HCL at the end. The studies were aimed to find the cause and effect between LCAT and HDL have produced conflicting results but it was accepted that impaired HCL functionality is the cause of LCAT deficiency. As decreased LCAT activity was seen to have a negative correlation between ox-LDL and HbA1c levels but these findings have raised questions on whether HDL’s from pre-diabetic patients are compromised in the ability to pressure LCAT functionality. The purpose of this was to study the LCAT levels in women and men with T2DM. These studies were done on patients diagnosed with T2DM and were chosen from the diabetic clinic of Vali-Asr Hospital. The patients used as the control were selected from concomitants and hospital staff.

The patients were matched by criteria such as age, sex and BMI while some were excluded based on smoking habits, pregnancy, creatine use of antioxidant and hospital admission in the recent 6 months. None of the patients were on hormone replacement therapy or had diabetic complications. The data about their age, height, sex, blood pressure at sitting and weight in light clothes were recorded. A blood pressure measurement was done twice after every 5 min and a mean BP was calculated. The calculations of BMI were done using the Quetelel formula and (HOMA-IR) was calculated by taking fasting insulin x fasting blood sugar. For the blood samples, it was taken after fasting and also with glucose measurement along with the measurement of Serum creatine, FBS, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, Low-density lipoproteins, cholesterol and HbA1c.

They used the independent sample t test to compare the differences in the variables and between women and men while the Pearson’s correlation was used to study the correlation of LCAT, HDL levels and LCAT activity. The results showed that in patients with T2DM, 15% was due to frequency of insulin therapy and 20% was the frequency of statin therapy. The controls had lower LCAT and HDL activity levels whiles in diabetic patients a higher LCAT, HbAlc, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride levels were recorded. This paper gives statistical data about diabetes and its prominence in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. It gives great analysis in terms of percentages but it didn’t really tell me what diabetes was at first. I had to make a few additions to it in order to get the writers point across. Also as a student doing biochemistry right now, the names of the disorders are very striking and intimidating. I was goggling half of these disorders while reading through and this brought a question to my mind, Are scientific journals or articles for scientists only or are they also for the public? If they are for the public, then I know many won’t be reading much of these. But I do like how the author used graphical presentation to make to actual text less intimidating because it is much easier to follow what’s on a graph.